The Temple of Literature - The first University of Thang Long Capital
Undergo over 1000 years of history, the Temple of Literature still be retained ancient beauty with architectural features of many eras. It is a typical cultural-historical sites and the most important construction of Hanoi capital as well as all country.
Temple of Literature Architecture
Overview of The Temple of Literature
Studying in Temple of Literature
Students are mainly those who passed “Huong” exam, through an examination in “Bo Le” to entrance Imperial Academy to study for preparing next exams: “Hoi” exam and “Dinh” exam. Students were divided into three classes: Upper, Middle and Lower. Minimum learning period of time was 3 years and maximum was 7 years. Main learning process included listening lectures, commenting and writing literature.
Candidates had minor tests each month and four major tests per year. Success in the exams, certified by the "Ministry of Rites" qualified them to sit the national exam, the "Hoi". Success at the "Hoi", students took part in the exam which was held at Royal Palace – the “Dinh” exam, questioned and finally marked by the King himself. Those who passed “Dinh” exam was classified into three classes: The First Dr (Poinsettias – “Trang nguyen, First-rank doctorate second laureate – “Bang nhan”, First-rank doctorate third laureate – “Tham hoa”), The Second Dr (“Hoang Giap”) and The Third Dr (PhD).
The holy turtles in The Temple of Litarature
Examination history in Vietnam started from 1075 until last Confucian examinations in 1919, total 2,898 people passed great faculty - “Dai Khoa”. The fewest passed students faculty had 3 people, the highest passed students faculty had 62 people. The youngest passed student was Poinsettias Nguyen Hien (examination in 1247) at age of 13, the oldest passed student was Dr. Quach Dong Dan (examination in 1634) at 68 years old.
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Doctorate Headstone in Nham Tuat faculty under 3rd Bao Dai indicated clearly the importance of the training of talents and encouraging students: “Talented people are the power of our country. The power is prosperous making powerful nation, the power is weakened leading lower nation situation. So Kings always considers choosing intelligent people and fostering talents as urgent work. Therefore, building headstones at the entrance of “Thai Hoc” is the way to incentive people across country to study, practice and be enthusiastic to help country. This building headstones is not just nominal prefer”.
Doctorate Headstone is located on the back of turtles. Turtle is one of four mascots: “Long”, “Ly”, “Qui”, “Phung”. Turtle has long life, strong healthy, so putting Doctorate headstone on the back of turtles has shown the respect talented people and lasted forever.
Temple of Literature at present
Every year, there are a lot of cultural and festival activities happened at Temple of Literature such as: incense offering to the sages, people chess playing, Folklore, poetry commenting, calligraphy exhibition, spring poetry introduction, etc.
Vietnamese students often keep their last memories of student life at The Temple of Literature
In the next plan, Temple of Literature is being gradually piloted cultural programs with bold ethnic groups as holding the club "Thang Long Poetry Forum", club "People's teacher and excellence teacher," building "Museum of Hanoi celebrities".
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